Expert Physiotherapy, Chiropractic, and Orthotics Services for Optimal Health

Sciatica Pain: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment Options


Posted by Dr. Scott Wilson | 01-Feb-2024

Sciatica pain is a common complaint that affects many people worldwide. For some, this type of pain can be debilitating, causing discomfort and limiting physical activity. However, understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for sciatica can allow for effective pain relief and management of the underlying causes. In this article, we’ll provide an overview of sciatica including common symptoms, underlying causes, the diagnostic process, and various treatment options. Whether you’re someone experiencing sciatica or seeking information for a loved one, this article provides some valuable insights into sciatica pain and its management.

What is Sciatica?

Sciatica is the term used to describe pain that originates in your sciatic nerve.  The sciatic nerve is the longest nerve in your body. It extends from your lower back, through your hips and buttocks, down the back of your legs, and into your feet. It’s responsible for controlling the muscles in your lower leg and for transmitting sensory information from your lower limbs back to your spinal cord and your brain.

Sciatica is a common condition, often caused by the compression of the sciatic nerve roots due to factors such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or muscle inflammation. Those suffering with sciatica may also experience lower back pain, muscle weakness, and altered sensation in the affected leg – it’s usually experienced on one side of the body.  When this nerve is compressed or irritated, it can result in various symptoms, including pain, numbness, and weakness, usually experienced on one side of the body. Understanding the role of the sciatic nerve, the symptoms of the condition and the underlying causes is crucial for the proper diagnosis and treatment of sciatica.

Recognizing Common Symptoms of Sciatica

Recognizing the symptoms of sciatica is crucial for early identification and treatment. Symptoms can vary from person to person, but common experiences include nerve pain, lower back pain, numbness, a “pins and needles” sensation, muscle weakness, and tingling sensations. Sciatic pain is often described as a sharp, shooting or electric-like burning sensation, which may radiate from the lower back through the buttocks and down the leg. The symptoms typically only occur on one side of the body, while the severity of symptoms can vary. Some people experience mild, intermittent discomfort, while others may have constant sharp pain. Individuals with sciatica may also experience muscle weakness, making it challenging to move the affected leg or foot. For many, their pain is often worse with movement, such as walking or standing for long periods. It can adversely affect their everyday activities and their ability to get a restful and restorative sleep.

Extreme Symptoms

In severe cases of sciatica, individuals may experience a loss of bladder and/or bowel control. This may indicate severe nerve compression or damage, and requires urgent evaluation and treatment. If you or someone you know experiences this symptom along with sciatica pain, it’s imperative to seek medical help right away.

What Causes Sciatica?

Sciatica is often caused by factors such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, muscle inflammation, or compression of the sciatic nerve roots. A herniated disc occurs when the soft, gel-like material inside the disc pushes out through a tear in the outer layer, irritating the adjacent nerves, including the sciatic nerve. Spinal stenosis, on the other hand, is the narrowing of the spinal canal, which can compress the nerve roots of the sciatic nerve. Other causes may include muscle inflammation, spinal tumors, infections, or injuries. Understanding the specific cause of sciatica is crucial for effective treatment and the prevention of future episodes.

Key Risk Factors for Developing Sciatica

There are several risk factors associated with the development of sciatica including a variety of lifestyle and biological factors. Understanding these risk factors can help with both treatment and prevention. Here’s what you need to know:

  • Various Lifestyle Factors: A sedentary lifestyle and prolonged periods of sitting can lead to weakened muscles and poor posture which may contribute to spinal misalignment and compression of the sciatic nerve. It can also lead to reduced blood flow and circulation which can exacerbate nerve compression and increase susceptibility. Being obese or overweight puts excess strain on the spine and nerves and occupations that involve heavy lifting, twisting, or repetitive back movements may increase the risk of sciatic nerve irritation.
  • The Impact of Aging: Aging is associated with natural wear and tear on the spine, leading to degenerative changes, including herniated discs, bone spurs, and spinal stenosis. These age-related spinal abnormalities can contribute to sciatic nerve compression, resulting in the symptoms of sciatica. Additionally, aging can also lead to reduced muscle strength and flexibility, affecting the lower back and core muscles that support the spine.
  • Underlying Medical Conditions: Sciatica can also stem from underlying medical conditions. As mentioned above, conditions like herniated discs and spinal stenosis, for example, may result in sciatic nerve compression and pain. Other underlying medical conditions, such as spinal tumors, infections, or inflammation, can also lead to sciatica symptoms.
  • The Role of Genetics: Certain hereditary factors can influence the structure and integrity of spinal discs, potentially increasing the likelihood of herniated discs and sciatic nerve compression. A family history of spinal disorders can also increase the risk of developing sciatica.

The Process of Diagnosing Sciatica

A proper diagnosis is essential for identifying symptoms, determining underlying causes and guiding an appropriate treatment plan. Here’s an overview of key elements of that process:

Health History and Physical Examination

Diagnosing sciatica typically starts with the taking of a detailed medical history and the conducting of a physical examination. The physical exam may include assessing muscle strength, reflexes, and sensation in the affected leg. Your healthcare professional may also examine the results of a series of specific movements, such as the straight leg raise test, to reproduce the symptoms and pinpoint the location of nerve compression. Based on the findings of your physical exam, your healthcare professional may order additional diagnostic tests.

Diagnostic Tests and Examinations

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used to provide detailed images of the spine, helping to assess the condition of your intervertebral disks, nerve roots, and surrounding structures. Electromyography (EMG) is another diagnostic technique that measures the electrical activity of muscles, helping determine the extent of nerve damage or compression. Meanwhile, nerve conduction studies can also help to evaluate the transmission of electrical signals along the sciatic nerve.

Differentiating Sciatica from General Back Pain

While sciatica and general back pain both involve discomfort in the back, the underlying causes and symptoms of sciatica and general back pain differ. Sciatica is characterized by pain that radiates down the leg, often accompanied by numbness, tingling, or muscle weakness. Whereas, general back pain is usually localized to the lower back region and may be caused by muscle strains, poor posture, or injury.

Differentiating Sciatica from Piriformis Syndrome

Piriformis syndrome is a condition in which the piriformis muscle, located in the buttocks, becomes tight or spasms, irritating the sciatic nerve. This can cause symptoms similar to sciatica, including buttock pain, numbness, tingling, or shooting pain down the back of the leg. However, the underlying cause of the symptoms is different in piriformis syndrome, as the compression is due to muscle irritation rather than nerve root compression in the spine. Accurate diagnosis is important to ensure the most effective treatment for your actual condition.

Sciatica Treatment Options

There are various treatment options for sciatica, with the most appropriate approach depending on the severity of symptoms and underlying causes.

Physiotherapy Exercises and Stretches

Physiotherapy is an essential component of the treatment plan for sciatica pain relief. Your physical therapist will design a customized exercise and stretching program designed to improve core strength, flexibility, and posture, all of which can help alleviate sciatic nerve compression and reduce pain. Some common physiotherapy exercises for sciatica pain relief include:

  • Pelvic Tilts: These exercises help strengthen your core muscles, including the muscles of your lower back, abdomen, and buttocks.
  • Hamstring Stretches: Stretching the muscles in the back of your thighs can help relieve sciatic nerve compression.
  • Piriformis Stretches: Stretching your piriformis muscle, located in the buttocks, can help alleviate sciatic pain.
  • Glute Bridges: This exercise strengthens the muscles of your buttocks and lower back, improving spinal stability and reducing nerve irritation.
  • Cat-Camel Stretches: These stretches help improve spinal mobility and flexibility, reducing the risk of nerve compression.

Regular use of these exercises and stretches, under the guidance of a physiotherapist, can help manage your symptoms and prevent future episodes.

Other Paramedical Treatment Options

Besides physiotherapy, other paramedical treatment options for sciatica include chiropractic care, osteopathy, and acupuncture. Chiropractors use spinal adjustments and manipulations to realign the spine and relieve pressure on the sciatic nerve. Osteopaths focus on manual techniques to improve musculoskeletal alignment and function. Acupuncture involves inserting thin needles into specific points on the body to alleviate pain and promote healing. These paramedical treatments can complement physiotherapy and provide additional relief for sciatica symptoms.

Over-the-Counter Medications for Sciatica Pain Relief

Over-the-counter medications can provide temporary relief. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, can help reduce inflammation and alleviate pain associated with sciatica. Acetaminophen, available without a prescription, may be used to manage mild to moderate sciatica pain. Topical pain-relieving creams, gels, or patches can also be applied to the affected area to provide localized relief. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare professional if symptoms persist or worsen.

Home Based Treatments for Sciatica Relief

In addition to professional treatment options, there are things you can do at home on your own to provide relief. Applying ice packs or heating pads to the affected area can help alleviate inflammation, reduce pain, and promote muscle relaxation. Engaging in gentle stretching exercises, such as yoga or specific sciatica stretches provided by your Physiotherapist, can help relieve muscle tension, improve flexibility, and alleviate sciatic nerve compression. Additionally, maintaining a healthy weight, practicing good posture, and avoiding prolonged periods of sitting can also contribute to the management of symptoms.

When is Surgery Recommended for Sciatica?

Surgery for sciatica is typically recommended when severe pain is persistent, and the underlying cause, such as a herniated disk pressing on the sciatic nerve, is confirmed through diagnostic tests. The specific surgical procedure for sciatica will depend on the underlying cause and individual factors. Prior to pursuing surgery, your healthcare professionals will thoroughly evaluate the benefits, risks, and potential complications, taking into account the unique character of your overall health status.

Prognosis for Sciatica Sufferers

The prognosis for sciatica sufferers is generally favorable, given the appropriate treatment and management. With prompt intervention and adherence to the recommended treatment plan, most people experience significant relief from symptoms. While some long-term effects, such as occasional flare-ups, may occur, the majority of sciatica sufferers can achieve long-term pain relief and improved quality of life with the right combination of therapies and lifestyle modifications. However, each case is unique, and the prognosis for sciatica can vary depending on the underlying cause, severity of symptoms, and individual factors.

Managing the Long-term Effects of Sciatica

Managing the long-term effects of sciatica requires a holistic approach to pain management. Physical therapy is often a key component of long-term pain relief, as it helps strengthen the core muscles, improves posture, and enhances flexibility, reducing the risk of sciatic nerve compression and pain. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, massage therapy, or chiropractic treatment, may also provide relief and help manage long-term symptoms. Additionally, lifestyle modifications, including regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, practicing good posture, and stress management, can contribute to the overall management of sciatica pain in the long term.


Sciatica can cause significant pain and discomfort, but the good news is that it is treatable. Understanding the symptoms and underlying causes of sciatica is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment. From physiotherapy exercises & stretches to home-based treatment, there are various non-invasive options available to alleviate your sciatica pain. Only in severe cases, would surgery be recommended. And when it comes to managing the long-term effects, taking preventive measures can help reduce the chances of recurrence.

If you or someone you know is struggling with sciatica pain, we can help. Contact us today and let us show you why, at Physiomed…Healthier Starts Here.

Frequently Asked Questions About Sciatica Pain:

Q1. What is the Best Therapy for Sciatica?

For sciatica, physiotherapy is often considered one of the best therapies. A tailored physical therapy program can include exercises to strengthen and stretch muscles, improve flexibility, and alleviate pressure on the sciatic nerve. Modalities such as heat or ice therapy, ultrasound, and electrical stimulation may also be used to reduce pain and inflammation. Additionally, manual therapy techniques like massage and spinal manipulation can provide relief. Always consult with a healthcare professional to determine the most suitable therapy for your specific condition.

Q2. Can Sciatica Pain Return Even After Treatment?

Yes, sciatica pain can return after treatment. However, you can minimize the risk of recurrence. Underlying causes must be adequately addressed and you should also follow the treatment plan provided by your healthcare professional. This includes completing at home or post-treatment home care activities.

Q3. How Can I Prevent Sciatica From Recurring?

Preventing sciatica pain from recurring requires proactive measures to reduce the risk of nerve compression. This includes strengthening core muscles, regular stretching, practicing good posture, maintaining a healthy weight and avoiding heavy lifting and repetitive back movements.

Dr. Scott Wilson

Dr. Scott Wilson is the Founder & Chairman of Physiomed; one of Canada’s largest franchised networks of inter-disciplinary healthcare clinics. A graduate of Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College, Dr. Wilson founded Physiomed in 1994 and has since grown Physiomed to over 30 clinics in Southern Ontario and British Columbia. With hundreds of practitioners from over a dozen disciplines, Dr. Wilson and Physiomed have helped over 100,000 Canadians with physiotherapy, chiropractic, massage therapy, orthotic therapy, compression therapy and clinical conditioning as part of a program of rehabilitation and health optimization. In addition to helping patients improve their physical and mental well-being, Dr. Wilson has also mentored hundreds of practitioners to provide better care while enjoying more fulfilling careers. He is also a keynote speaker on many health related topics including how physiotherapy, chiropractic and health & wellness treatment can help with stress, weight loss, and unlocking the true potential within to achieve lasting physical well-being.

Top Blogs

Jun 15

Upper Back and Neck Pain: Causes and Solutions...

Key Highlights: Upper back and neck pain can be caused…

Read More
Jun 01

Slim Down: How to Lose Belly Fat Naturally...

Key Highlights: Many people want to lose belly fat for…

Read More
May 15

Restoring Balance with Vestibular Physical Therapy...

Key Highlights: Vestibular physical therapy, or physiotherapy, is a specialized…

Read More
May 01

Tennis Elbow: Top Exercises for Relief & Recove...

Key Highlights: Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondylitis, is a condition…

Read More
Apr 15

10 Must-Try Exercises for Backache Pain Relief...

Key Highlights: Backache pain is a common issue that can…

Read More
Apr 01

Neck Pain: Causes, Symptoms & Solutions...

Key Highlights: Neck pain can be caused by various factors…

Read More

Ready to Get Started?

Book Your

Get Healthier... Stay Healthier!